Parent Genotypes: Monohybrid Crosses Generation Genotype of Individual #1 Genotype of Individual…

Parent Genotypes: Monohybrid Crosses

Generation

Genotype of Individual #1

Genotype of Individual #2

P

YY

Yy

P1

yY

yY

P2

Yy

yY

P3

yY

yY

P4

yY

yY

Generation Data Produced by Monohybrid Crosses

Generation

Possible Offspring Genotypes

Possible Offspring Phenotypes

Genotype Ratio

Phenotype Ratio

P

Yy, YY

YY

1:2

1:1

P1

Yy,Yy,YY

Y,y

1:2:1

1:1

P2

Yy, Yy

y,y

1:1

1:1

P3

Yy, Yy, YY

Y,y

1:2:1

3:1

P4

Yy, Yy, YY

Y,y

1:2:1

3:1

Part 2: Post-Lab Questions

  1. How much genotypic variation do you find in the randomly picked parents of your crosses?

It is a 1:1 ratio because there are only 2 possibilities for the genotypic variations.

How much in the offspring?

It is a 3:2 ratio because there are 3 possibilities for the outcomes for the offspring.

  1. Pool all of the offspring from your five replicates. How much phenotypic variation do you find? Is the ratio of observed phenotypes the same as the ratio of predicted phenotypes? Why or why not?
  2. What is the difference between genes and alleles? How might protein synthesis execute differently if a mutation occurs?Organisms heterozygous for a recessive trait are often called carriers of that trait. What does that mean?
  3. In peas, green pods (G) are dominant over yellow pods. If a homozygous dominant plant is crossed with a homozygous recessive plant, what will be the phenotype of the F1 generation? If two plants from the F1 generation are crossed, what will the phenotype of their offspring be?

Reflection (Discuss what you have learned by doing this experiment. How have your ideas changed? Do you have any new questions? What connections did you make between the lab and lecture?):

Part 3: Data Tables

ation

Genotype of Individual #1

Genotype of Individual #2

P

yy GG

YY Gg

P1

YY Gg

Yy gg

P2

YY Gg

Yy Gg

P3

Yy Gg

YY Gg

P4

yyGg

Yy GG

Generation Data Produced by Dihybrid Crosses

Generation

Possible Offspring Genotypes

Possible Offspring Phenotypes

Genotype Ratio

Phenotype Ratio

P

P1

P2

P3

P4

Part 3: Post-Lab QuestionsHow similar are the observed phenotypes in each replicate?How similar are they if you pool your data from each of the five replicates?Is it closer or further from your prediction?Did the results from the monohybrid or dihybrid cross most closely match your predicted ratio of phenotypes?Based on these results, what would you expect if you were looking at a cross of 5, 10, or 20 independently sorted genes?

  1. Why is it so expensive to produce a hybrid plant seed? In certain bacteria, an oval shape (O) is dominant over round (o) and thick cell walls (T) are dominant over thin (t). Show a cross between a heterozygous oval, thick cell walled bacteria with a round, thin cell walled bacteria. What are the phenotypes of the F1 and F2 offspring?

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