A new breed of machines emerged toward the end of the seventeenth century, developing through the…

A new breed of machines emerged toward the end of the seventeenth century, developing through the eighteenth and into the early nineteenth. Clock makers and inventors, and their philosophical audiences, turned theories about animal- and human- machinery into an experimental program: they built androids and automata that reproduced as closely as possible their natural subjects. These machines, like Dr. Reisel’s artificial man, seemed active, and self-moving. All these human-like machines or androids unsurprisingly had a decidedly Cartesian meaning: According to Descartes, a machine “could never use words, or put together other signs, as we [humans] do in order to declare our thoughts to others. He also says that “automaton would lack general reasoning abilities.” However, Descartes says that the functions of animals follow from the Automaton and machine. A Cartesian machine is a collection of bodies whose operations can be explained on mechanical principles alone: its parts are just parts of extension, and their motions are entirely subordinated to the laws of nature. These automata, like Dr. Reisel’s artificial man:

a.were clockworks, built based on scientific study of the subject. Though they were not able to act like a thinking person, Descartes believed that progress in technology soon or late would make them thinking and reasoning machines.

b.As Descartes believed, the source of motion in animal bodies was an extremely volatile fluid, called animal spirit or the vital principle, distributed through the nerves.

c.Followers of Descartes believed that a similar spirit is responsible for the motion of human being, and by its discovery, all androids would be self-moving machines.

d.They signified the lack of a rational soul, of a capacity for reason and intellect. the movement of their heart, the play of their lungs, the swallowing of food, though seemed natural, they never crossed the Cartesian boundary between mechanical body and rational soul.

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