a. Implement the backtracking algorithm for the n-queens problem in the language of your choice. Run your program for a sample of n values to get the numbers of nodes in the algorithm’s state-space trees. Compare these numbers with the numbers of candidate solutions generated by the exhaustivesearch algorithm for this problem (see Problem 9 in Exercises 3.4).
b. For each value of n for which you run your program in part (a), estimate the size of the state-space tree by the method described in Section 12.1 and compare the estimate with the actual number of nodes you obtained.
Consider the classic puzzle of placing eight queens on an 8 × 8 chessboard so that no two queens are in the same row or in the same column or on the same diagonal. How many different positions are there so that
a. no two queens are on the same square?
b. no two queens are in the same row?
c. no two queens are in the same row or in the same column?
Also estimate how long it would take to find all the solutions to the problem by exhaustive search based on each of these approaches on a computer capable of checking 10 billion positions per second.
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