Biological transport

Question 1. Draw a simple water molecule, including where there are slight positive and negative charges. Include the polar covalent bond. Then, draw a second water molecule, indicating the hydrogen bond between the two water molecules. (Review your notes on these! Don’t guess!)

Question 2. Describe how cohesion and adhesion could play a role in water transport through the xylem of a plant.

Question 3. Consider how the fan and the floodlights might affect the plant’s rate of water loss through transpiration:

Do you expect moving air to increase or decrease the rate of transpiration? Why?

Do you expect high light to increase or decrease the rate of transpiration? Why?

Question 4. What is/are the independent variable(s)?

Question 5. What is the dependent variable?

Question 6. Write a hypothesis regarding the effects of air movement and light intensity on the rate of transpiration. You may write this as one hypothesis or two.

Plot the data on the grid below using time on the x axis and the amount of water evaporated on the y-axis. You should have one line on the graph for each of the four different environmental conditions. Label each clearly, using a key.

Question 7. Describe the characteristics of the data which support or refute your hypotheses from Question 6. Were your hypotheses supported or not?

Question 8. The tree from which our branch was cut grows near Grossmont College. Discuss why its transpiration rates might differ between March and August.

Question 9. If you wanted to plant a tree of this species near Grossmont College, where do you think it would grow better: in the Wildlife Sanctuary (on the far side of the perimeter road beyond the parking lot) or in the grassy area among the buildings? (Hint: in which area does the availability of water match the plant’s apparent needs?)

Question 10. Some plant species are known to shut their stomata during hot, dry conditions. Does the evidence show that our test branch closed its stomates? Describe how the data support your conclusion.

Question 11. Imagine that you are on the President’s Landscaping Committee, charged with planning the landscaping for a new Grossmont College Biology Laboratory complex to be constructed in the parking lot near the Gymnasium. The President has instructed the Committee to select drought-tolerant plants as much as possible. The rest of the committee looks to you for advice, since you have taken Biology 120. Do you think today’s plant species would qualify as drought-tolerant? Explain why or why not.

1-Remove the front half of the heart and set it aside. It should look similar to the Internal View on Figure 1. Identify the structure labeled 21, and write it here __________________________. Because this is a filling chamber that fills with blood, the number is located on the outside on the back of the heart. (Remember, the labels right and left refer to the heart’s right and left, not yours. For example, if you were the nurse or doctor, you would be referring to your patient’s right and left side, not your own.) However, because the atrium is a cavity, label this chamber in the Figure 1 Internal View diagram. Turn the model back around.

  1. Using the handout and looking at the model, note the two major blood vessels that lead into the right atrium. The blood vessel feeding blood into the right atrium from below is called the ____________________________________. It is labeled on the outside bottom of the vessel on the model. Because the body has used the oxygen in the blood entering this blood vessel, the blood is now oxygenated or deoxygenated (circle one).
  1. The blood vessel feeding blood in the right atrium from above is labeled #3 and is known as the __________________________________. (The model does not show this as an open vessel, but instead indicates the opening of the vena cava to the atrium as 51.) Where does this blood vessel carry blood from? ________________________________________________________ Would the blood carried by this blood vessel be oxygenated or deoxygenated? ______________________ What color will we use to indicate this? _______

  1. Below the right atrium is a larger chamber called the right ventricle with large fibrous tissue strands called chordae tendineae (59). Sketch the location of the chordae tendineae in the right ventricle on Figure 1’s Internal View, and label them. The chordae tendineae help support the valve between the atria and ventricles

  1. Because the right ventricle is also a cavity, rather than a solid structure, it is labeled on the outside of the model. Reorient the heart so that the front is facing you again and replace the front half of the heart so it is attached again. Can you imagine the right atrium, chordae tendineae and right ventricle below the piece you attached? _______ If not, remove and replace the front half of the heart until you can. What number is the right ventricle labeled as? ______
  1. Remove the front half of the heart again and set it aside. Upon contraction of the right atrium, blood flows into the right ventricle. The right atrium and right ventricle are separated by a valve. Valves in the heart maintain blood flow in one direction, preventing backflow into the atria. The two valves in between the atria and ventricles are logically called atrioventricular valves. More specifically, the atrioventricular valve between the right atrium and right ventricle is called the tricuspid valve. What number is the tricuspid valve in your heart model? ______ (The valve on your model is closed.) Label the tricuspid valve on Figure 1’s Internal View, noting that it is in open position on your drawing. Also, write “atrioventricular valve” in parentheses after tricuspid valve. The tricuspid valve is named after the fact that it generally has three flaps or cusps.
  1. Hold the front half of the heart out in front of the rest of the heart so that it is almost in closed position, but so that you can still peer in between. Now open the front half like a page in a book. Identify the internal and external parts of the right ventricle. Look for another valve with three flaps inside the right ventricle labeled 63. After filling, the right ventricle contracts, and the blood is pushed through this valve on its way through a blood vessel to the lungs. The three valve flaps are half-moon shaped from a side view as on your diagram, giving the valve its name, the semilunar valve. Label the semilunar valve in Figure 1’s Internal View.
  1. After the valve the blood flows into the pulmonary artery (10) which branches to the right and left pulmonary arteries into the small capillaries of the right and left lungs. What number is the left pulmonary artery? _____ (You may have to rotate your model.) What number is the right pulmonary artery? _____ Label the left and right pulmonary arteries on Figure 1’s Internal View. “Pulmonary” refers to anything associated with the lung
  1. Sketch the location of the lungs on Figure 1’s Internal View, and label them. Before passing through the lung (pulmonary) capillaries, would the blood carried by this blood vessel be oxygenated or deoxygenated? _____________
  1. After the blood has returned from the lungs, will it be oxygenated or deoxygenated? __________________ What color will we use to indicate this? _________

We learned that “pulmonary” refers to lungs. The term vein indicates that the vessel is moving blood to the heart. What is a logical name to call the right and left blood vessels carrying blood to the heart from the lungs? __________ _____________. You may need to rotate the model. What number are the left pulmonary veins labeled? _____ What number are the right pulmonary veins labeled? ______ Label the left pulmonary veins on Figure 1’s Internal view. Then sketch in and label the right pulmonary veins on Figure 1’s Internal view.

  1. Both left and right pulmonary veins empty into the filling chamber called the left atrium. Because this is a filling chamber that fills with blood, the number is located on the outside on the back of the heart. Just as with the right atrium, it is labeled on the outside back of the model. What number is the left atrium? _____ Label the left atrium on Figure 1’s Internal View.
  1. Open the front half of the heart and set it aside. Just as with the right atrium and right ventricle, the left atrium and left ventricle are separated by an atrioventricular valve to maintain direction of blood flow. This atrioventricular valve is known as the mitral valve, as well as the bicuspid valve. It is also known as the bicuspid valve as it has two flaps or cusps. Find the number of this valve on the model. ______ Label the mitral (bicuspid) valve on Figure 1’s Internal View, noting that it is in open position on your drawing, but closed on the model. Also, write “atrioventricular valve” in parentheses after mitral valve.
  1. As with the other atrioventricular valve, this valve is also supported by the _______________________. Sketch the location of the chordae tendineae in the left ventricle on Figure 1’s Internal View, and label them.
  1. When the mitral valve opens, the oxygenated/deoxygenated (circle one) blood moves into the ___________________. Just as with the right ventricle, it is labeled on the outside of the model, but this time on the front half. What number is the left ventricle? _____ Label the left ventricle on Figure 1’s Internal View. The left ventricle pumps blood through the ________________ of the aorta. What is that number of this semilunar valve? ______ Label the semilunar valve on Figure 1’s Internal View.
  1. The oxygenated/deoxygenated (circle one) blood travels up the __________. Label this structure on Figure 1’s Internal View. Three arteries (6, 7, and 8) branch off at the top of the aortic arch, providing blood to the arms and head. The large aorta also continues down behind the heart providing blood for the thorax (chest), abdomen, and the legs. It has been cut short on the model. Sketch the descending aorta as it appears from behind the heart, and label it on Figure 1’s Internal View.
  1. Now that you have completed the diagram of the heart’s internal anatomy, observe the top diagram of Figure 1 (External View). Replace the front side of the heart on your model. Referring to the Internal View diagram, the heart model, and the handout, locate and label the following structures, and label them on Figure 1’s External View.: inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, the main pulmonary artery, the right and left pulmonary arteries, the right and left pulmonary veins, the left atrium, the left ventricle, and the aorta. Sketch in and label the lungs and the descending aorta.

Question 9. Trace the flow of blood through the heart (and lungs) starting with the vena cava and ending with the aorta. Fill in the blanks below with right or left, except the blank that states which organ. Leave the rightmost column blank.

Oxygenated or deoxygenated?

(from body) vena cava

atrium

ventricle

artery

(Which organ?)

veins

atrium

(back to body) aorta

ventricle

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