Develop a final literature review

For this assignment you will Develop a final literature review. My topic is Educational leadership.Please Include the revisions in response to feedback from assignment 6 noted on the change matrix form from assignment 7. Be sure to include at least 15 scholarly references. Please write in your own words,12 font times roman, citations. Assigment #6 and Assignment # 7 are attached to help create the literature review. Please do not copy from assignments please write in your own words no plagerism.

Length: 12 pages, not including title or reference pages

Your assignment should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course by providing new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.

Assignment #6 feedback from instructor-
Great job on assignment #6. I appreciate your strong grasp of techniques to synthesize and the respect for the flow of information supporting your paper.The research support is very important to the credibility of your paper and will sustain the directions in which you write. Leadership is such a multifaceted topic. You responded to the assignment beautifully.One note about APA and voice, was made. Well organized, well written. If I had addition notes or comments they are in the margin and unless they were large concerns or errors no points were taken off.

Assignment #6 Paper

Literature Review

Social justice in education

Educational administration program, especially in college, has been improved through the incorporation of various frameworks that are intended to develop leaders in the society (Pazey & Cole, 2012). The essence of coming up with these new leaders is to create educational spaces as well as commitment where all scholars can learn and embrace differences such as race, sexuality, and religion among themselves in schools. There have been witnessed cases of inequality against certain students especially students with disabilities propelled by the evolving of social justice in the education sector. The school leaders have neglected this issue in the recent decades and needed should to address it with immediate effect. Laws concern with special education have been overlooked especially in the administration programs of universities, and this encourages the importance of coming up with leaders who are socially just to consider this issues that have been neglected in the current leadership. Social justice in education can only be solved by coming up with leaders who can well follow the laws that relate to such inequalities in education programs.

Teachers have been disadvantaged through oppression. Fear of discrimination influenced by their differences in sexuality, disability, race, and class and turn it impacts their job. These great forces limit the potential in a teacher-student association since they are so much rooted in the society (Ropers, 2013). Discrimination on women and race deny potential tutors with experience and other identities ‘the opportunity to work. Roper says that trying to overcome these kinds of oppression is a tough task as there are no easy steps that can be followed and the fact that this abuse is embedded in our society. He gives an instance of two tutors who express their views on their relations as teachers where one is a black and tells how relating with the whites an issue is and the other is a female who says that her relationship is limited to gender (Ropers, 2013).It is essential to discourage oppression of this form to narrow the gap that created between potential tutors and the learners as well as encourage social justice. This can be done by discussing sexuality openly in classrooms as well as race and other differences in the society.

School leadership around the world

In the recent years, top-performing countries have been developing strong school leadership programs (Vivien, 2013). Developing countries set certain goals for education especially at the national level and are involving schools and their leaders on what to do to meet these goals by ensuring that institutions are accountable for their results. In England, best principles are distinguished then deployed to schools that are low performing and need help. In Singapore, a proactive approach is used to recruit and identify teachers as well as assessing them on their potential for leadership.This approach also encourages training of teachers and prepare them for future leadership in education. The regime of learning in Singapore is based on highly preparing the students for the semester exams as well as checking a student’s knowledge, their goals, and achievement. Teachers mainly focus on the student performance then give feedback to the student to monitor the student understanding and not if the student’s answer was correct. In Shanghai, teachers, as well administrators, carry out the role of leadership in a school. The principal’s primary task is to focus on the overall school performance.

In Canada, the focus is on building capability and capacity to raise achievement in schools. This is the main feature that defines the education initiative in this country. Canada is not among the top-ranked regarding educational leadership since the governing of Canadian education takes place at the provincial level. Also, the country is still young regarding education, and there have not been scholars who are interested in the literature of the Canadian education to give an account of it.

In the United States, issues of educational leadership are handled at the district and state level (Vivien, 2013). The ability of the school leaders as well as the quality of teachers is the key determinants of successful education in America. Excellent teachers with high quality regarding their teaching, as well as the school principals, play a significant role in the success of the US students, which in turn creates a long-term benefit to the student as well as the country at large. The disadvantage is that many American students do not have access to the best teachers who can help them succeed in their academics. Also, the high-quality teachers leave the field for various reasons (Vivien, 2013). The world needs to go a further step in ensuring that all schools are equipped with high-quality teachers as well as good leaders to improve the quality of education accessed by the current and the future students.

Distributing school leadership

It is essential to have new leadership models in sectors of higher education to continue graduating well-equipped students. In this industry, it is better to have a less hierarchical leadership approach that considers the professional context and various specifications in the college education. Different leadership approaches have been examined in response to the ownership of institutions, whether private or public sector as well as market competition, managerial control, and organization restructuring.Out of these changes, there has been a vast gap between staff and academic due to the reduction of autonomy (Jones, 2012). A structure that encourages collaborative control is far much better than a system that advocates for individual power and control.

The staff and school board determine the success of a good leadership by monitoring the running of leadership in institutions. Distribution of power according to Pont et al. (2008), is a system where not one person is responsible in the decision-making process instead it involves some nominated stakeholders being led by the principal. Goes on to discuss the distribution of leadership in a school setup among three stakeholders and gives the roles played by each.

The principal

He is an individual who governs the leadership of a school in accordance to set government standards. In many countries, the law governs the roles of the principle while in other countries a principal is an independent body. They also act as the representatives of the school from the outside viewer. A principal holds the final responsibility of decision-making.They were traditionally referred to as head teachers, meaning that they had additional roles than the other teachers. The criteria in which they are recruited depends on the experience and qualifications that one has over the others. Hence, the principal’s role is the highest in the entire teaching career.

In countries like Belgium and Australia that are so much involved with the importance of school leadership, the principal has the major role of teaching. Their main duty is to ensure proper implementation of regulation and manage any planning policies in an institution. In Norway however, school management is done at a central level whereby a principal is not just an individual from the teaching staff. Instead, he is a person who is given office and stands for some common schools then breaks his tasks to several leaders who are in the individual schools.

Vice, deputies and assistant principals

Several schools have more complex tasks that require more redistribution of power to other individuals who are under the principals to enhance leadership in the schools. Their central role is to conduct administrative and managerial skills although they do not directly supervise the teachers. In some institutions, the functions of the principal are broken down and assigned to more than one deputy principals as agreed by the boards of school leadership. This influences leadership in schools since there is a wide area for discussion and decision-making.

In France, for instance, some deputy principals supporting the office of the principal, are administration manager, and some educational counselors. The presence of assistant principals is determined by the complexity of the school and the number of students it holds. In institutions where leadership is sophisticated, the role of the assistant principals is to carry out administrative management, which includes curriculum coordination and discipline. The composition of school leadership and their positions vary from various countries in the world. In Chile, for instance, leadership in learning institutions involves a team of leaders that are picked from each educational unit and are all headed by a principal.

Middle management

In many countries, middle management involves the deputy principal, heads of school departments, and selected teachers tasked with special duties. The higher the leadership management is the more emphasis put under the leadership of an institution. Institutions should have more layers of leadership to improve the institutional administration as well as decision-making. Various heads of specific areas within the organization, do for instance in Portugal, carry out the task of middle management. Their main role is to evaluate teachers among other roles in the institution. In technical schools, however, middle management is more complicated and determined by the functions departments in the organization.However, all teachers in the organization carry out the task of leadership in all learning institution. Every teacher is a leader since they coordinate students who are lower than they are regarding academic qualification and experience in the various levels of learning.

Improving student outcomes through leadership

Various types of educational leadership influence the results of students in schools. The two main types of leadership improvement applied in learning institutions are the transformational leadership and the instructional leadership. Research carried out by Robinson et al. (2008), showed that instructional leadership had more power to impact students as compared to the transformational leadership. The research involved the student outcomes influenced by leadership. The study revealed that the enormous influence of student outcomes was determined by the extent of the relationship between the leaders and their work in teaching and learning.

Transformational leadership

This form of leadership involves all educators and stakeholders of the institution taking part in the evolution of a low performing institution to an efficient and well-performing school. The transformational process involves; coming up with a school vision then establishing the primary goals, provision of intellectual motivation, ensuring support in individual levels, developing excellence performance anticipation, and coming up with a structure that will nurture contribution in school decision making. This form of leadership aims to ensure that the teachers are competent in their teaching, accomplished through assessing them as well as providing student learning is adequately carried out.

All leaders in this system aim at ensuring the achievement of the set goals and the vision are clear to the stakeholders. They do this by embracing the values and the principles of the stakeholders concerning the outcome of the institution. What matters in this form of leadership is the perspective of the stakeholders and the influence of the leaders of the stakeholders. Standards are set and then implemented with commitment as a procedure of continuous perfection, which aim at the transformation.

Instructional leadership

In this form of leadership student growth and learning is done by setting goals, monitoring how the lessons have been planned, regular evaluation of teachers and allocation of resources. The general idea is to ensure instructions are followed as well as managing the curriculum to achieve the set goals (Marks & Printy, 2003).

According to Spillene (2015), instructional improvement has a great effect on educational leadership. The issue on instruction has been a rare discussion as educational administrators emphasize on development in teaching and learning of the students. Policy environment shifts in the past few years tried to extensive fake changes in instructions especially in the classrooms might meet the expense of classroom teaching as well as students learning as a core role in educational leadership and research. Scholarship on leadership in education may improve student academic learning as well as educational leadership. Instructions in specific subjects in school should be researched on especially in educational leadership.

Therefore, instructional leadership matters and is so sensitive in exercising of educational leadership and educational administrators should consider this issue (Burch & Spillane, 2003). It is insufficient for educational administrators to generalize their knowledge about instructions on a particular subject to another hence expertise on leadership should be a subject of discussion to be considered. Distribution of leadership in school positions and districts should also adapt instruction educational leadership and should be researched on, in a sensitive way as well as their subject matter.

Teachers’ influence on educational leadership

One way to improve educational leadership is by coming up with leadership programs to build the leadership ability of the teachers. Teachers and administrators of the schools should appreciate the nature as well as the complexity of leadership systems and how they are exercised. Teachers in their training are less prepared on leadership skills (Greenlee, 2007). There should be sharing of skills between teachers and the administrators, and this is met though coming up with leadership programs. Educational leadership should prepare programs and enhance leadership skills to teachers. Educational leadership program increases leadership opportunities; there is a relationship between skills and knowledge acquired by educational leadership students. These programs also increase involvement in supporting teachers’ leadership.

These programs aim to ensure that administrators are not the only leaders in the school. The assumption that the principal is the sole instructor and leader in schools is increasing which leads to the declining of student performance since the burden lies on one individual. Involving teachers in the leadership activities of the school also gives an opportunity for the teachers to acquire the leadership skills. Also, lack of a clear program of improving teachers’ leadership creates a limit on improving student learning. Emphasis on teachers’ leadership is essential in the successful school reforms as well as the teachers’ professionalism. Teachers should also not assume the role of leadership but take responsibility for the general changes of the school to improve student learning. However, there has been a noted role of teachers’ leadership in schools although there is no precise definition on this issue. Teachers leadership is an opportunity whereby teachers improve their expertise as well as promote their professional development, which enhances instruction to the students. Teachers also can influence their colleagues to change and do things without having being controlled by leaders.


Pazey, B. L. & Cole, H. A. (2012). The Role of Special Education Training in the Development of Socially Just Leaders. Building an Equity Consciousness in Educational Leadership Programs. Vol 49(2).

Ropers, B. (2013). Social Justice in the Classroom. Understanding the Implications of Interlocking Oppressions. College Teaching, Vol. 47(3). pp 91-95.

Vivien,S.(2013). School leadership around the world. Educational Leadership. Vol 7 (7) pp48-54

Jones, S. (2012). Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management: Distributed leadership: a collaborative framework for academics, executives and professionals in higher education. Vol 34(1).

Pont, B.,Nusche, D. and Moorman, H. (2008). Improving School Leadership. Policy and practice Vol 1, pp73-96.

Robinson, V. M. J., Lloyd, C. A. and Rowe, K., J. (2008). The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: An Analysis of the Differential Effects of Leadership Types. Sage journals Vol 44(5).

Marks, H., M. andPrinty, M. S.(n.d) Principal Leadership and School Performance: An Integration of Transformational and Instructional Leadership.. Vol 39 (3).

Burch, P., & Spillane, J. P. (2003). The Elementary School Journal. Elementary school leadership and subject matter: Reforming mathematics literacy instruction:. Vol 103(5), 519-35.

Spillane, J., P. (2015). American education research association. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol. 26(2), pp. 169-172.

Greenlee, B. J. (2007). Building teacher leadership capacity through educational leadership programs. Journal of Research for Educational leaders, 4(1), 44-74.

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