“true” or “false. and answer one question

True or F:

1: Qualitative research methods are best suited for studying social phenomena in all their richness, nuance, and depth.

2:Sample generalizability is not usually possible in qualitative studies because probability-based sampling is unlikely.

3:Respondents will sometimes agree with a statement in a survey simply because they do not want to give socially undesirable answers.

4:Measures of central tendency assess the extent to which cases are spread out through the distribution or clustered in just one location.

5:A major weakness of web-based surveys is that Internet access is not widely or evenly available in the general population.

6:The measure of central tendency most appropriate for nominal variables is the mode.

7:Audit studies are a type of sociological research method consisting of laboratory experiments.

8:The Hawthorne effect refers to changes in an individual or group behavior that are due to being observed or otherwise studied.

9:An elaboration model builds on bivariate analysis by adding a third variable.

10: Ethnography refers to the method of participant observation to study a given cultural world or social phenomenon.

Part II: Short-ish Answer Questions. Select ONE of the following question options. Be sure to respond fully to all components of the question.

  1. A group of researchers surveyed a small random sample of undergraduate students. The chart below represents their data. Use this data to answer questions a and b below.

Gender

Age

Class

GPA

Major

M

18

Freshman

3.3

Sociology

F

20

Junior

2.0

Chemistry

M

20

Sophomore

2.5

Music

F

30

Junior

4.0

Psychology

M

22

Senior

3.5

Sociology

F

21

Junior

3.0

Biology

F

18

Freshman

3.3

Bioengineering

F

19

Sophomore

3.7

Math

T

25

Senior

4.0

Data Science

M

20

Junior

2.9

Dance

a) For which of the variables in the above dataset would it be appropriate to calculate the mode? Of the variables you’ve listed, identify the mode of each. For which of the variables in the above dataset would it be appropriate to calculate the median? Of the variables you’ve listed, identify the median of each. For which of the variables in the above dataset would it be appropriate to calculate the mean?

b) Draw a frequency table (with percentages) that includes the variables Gender and Class

As part of their study, the researchers wanted to know how students feel about the necessity of pay differences. To do so, they asked participants to respond to the following question:

“Some people earn a lot of money while others do not earn very much at all. In order to get people to work hard, do you think large differences in pay are”:

Absolutely necessary, Probably necessary, Probably not necessary, Definitely not necessary

After gathering their data, the researchers recoded students’ majors into two categories: STEM and non-STEM. From their results, the following crosstabulation was created comparing STEM versus non-STEM student responses to the question about pay differences. Use this table to answer question c below.

STEM

Non-STEM

Row Total

Absolutely Necessary

21.7%

19.3%

20.5%

Probably Necessary

52.4%

31.6%

42.0%

Probably Not Necessary

19.5%

40.2%

29.9%

Definitely Not Necessary

6.4%

8.9%

7.6%

Total

100%

100%

100%

c) Assume the researchers had put forth the following hypothesis: Students in STEM majors will be more likely than students in non-STEM majors to indicate that pay differences are necessary. Looking at the crosstabulation table above, do you think the researchers’ hypothesis is supported or not supported by the data? Use the results in the table to explain your answer.

2. A researcher is interested in understanding how immigrant family members use social media to communicate with family members in another country. To do so, they design a survey examining what forms of social media people use and how they use them.

a) In the survey, the researcher asks the question: “Do you use social media to reach out to family members in another country for an emergency and for routine events?” The answers provided are:

  1. A) Yes
  2. B) No
  3. C) Hardly Ever

What may be some issues with the structure of this question and its answer choices?

b) The researcher determines that they are also interested in understanding the feelings that immigrants have when communicating with family members in another country. As a result, the researcher plans to conduct follow-up qualitative research with immigrants. What may be a method of qualitative research that the researcher can use, and why would that be more effective? Explain your response.

c) Edit the survey question and answer choices in part “a” so that they make a good survey question. Provide one good follow-up survey question and answer choices for the topic.

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